The Importance of Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola I in Southeast Asian Tamil Links

Our concern of the sculptural representation of Karaikkal Ammai has to be seen conjointly with the Political Connections of Rajaraja I and his son Rajendra Chola I in the far east. Ample evidences on the Tamil Connection in Southeast Asia have been provided by the available Tamil/Sanskrit inscriptions related to both these Emperors found in Tamilnadu/Southeast Asia. It is important to understand the feats of Rajendra’s father – Rajaraja Chola the Great, who laid a stern carpet of friendly maritime relations with the Southeast Asian countries, that provided a firm pathway for the son to go beyond friendly relations and have a stronghold in trade as well as political supremacy.

While we discuss the religious culmination of both Tamil and Khmer Empires through the specific travel of iconography of Karaikkal Ammai during early 11th century, the extended economic connections of the Maritime Champions of Southern India with other Empires of Southeast Asia provide important resources. It is also well known that the ancient Tamils had successful economic ties with Romans and Greeks before Common Era as per exclusive literary evidences in Sangam Tamil Literature. The entirety of Tamil Land during the first millennium saw vast changes in the Ruling Kingdoms – Chera, Chola, Pandya and Pallava which took turns in capturing respective terrains. Simultaneously, the Maritime Traders from different kingdoms of Thamizhagam and their respective Guilds settled in various Southeast Asian countries never seemed to have seized activity, irrespective of the change in rulers in home land – Thamizhagam.

The Sea has always proved a strong Livelihood Entity for the coastal kingdoms of South and Southeast Asia… be it the yesteryear Pallavas, Cheras, Cholas and the Pandyas of the Tamil Land, Champa, Chenla, Khmer, Srivijaya, Lanka and others in Southeast Asia. The art of tackling forceful waters has been an adventurous game for the sea farers. Or should they be called Sea Darers?

The political ambitions and victories of the Political Masters must have created a smooth path for the Daring Merchants to lead the Economic Arena, and vice versa, the Merchants in strong positions for centuries must have created the smooth passage of friendly relations to political victories for the Ruling Clan.

As Tansen Sen writes about the Chola and Srivijaya Kingdoms-

Because of their geographical locations and powerful naval forces, the two kingdoms already maintained significant control over key segments of Indian Ocean commerce during the eleventh century. The unprecedented naval conflicts between kingdoms in southern and southeastern Asia seem to have been a consequence of attempts by Chola traders and rulers to extend their sphere of influence into the coastal regions of China.

pg. 73, The Military Campaigns of Rajendra Chola and the Chola-Srivijaya-China Triangle; Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa : Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia.

 

The Cholas,  through their inscriptions, not only recorded their achievements and victories over other kingdoms in land and across the seas, but also documented their style of administration, commerce, religion, culture, language and literature and more. They used their architecturally brilliant Temples to chronicle their history and geographic entities for future generations. The inscriptions on stone and copper plates prove significant evidences to their contemporary history and additionally and most importantly serve as linking chains to preceding and ensuing centuries and kingdoms alike.

For knowledge of their military, administration and overseas commerce, the Chola documentation seems to have reached its pinnacle during the reign of Rajaraja I and his son Rajendra I. Both the Kings developed positive diplomatic and maritime trade relations with the kingdoms of South and Southeast Asia, and further expanded their strong military associations with the help of their valiant naval force and economic connections through well established Tamil Trader Guilds.

Epigraphy is regarded the most reliable evidence to prove facts about kingdoms and their activities. There is certainly a void left behind the history of sculpting Karaikkal Ammai in Cambodia and Thailand – void created due to absence of specific epigraphic evidences.

As mentioned in the previous post –

When there is absence of epigraphic clues on the sculpture of Karaikkal Ammai included in Khmer Architecture, the best option as per Finot is to decode the images; Decoding Images not only with the style of particular Kings but a comparative view of contemporary maritime kingdoms with the root of identical religious factors – in this case – Karaikkal Ammai.

https://glorioustamils.com/2016/09/22/ammai-in-banteay-srei-and-the-tamil-maritime-links-in-south-east-asia/

 

Now, with the absence of specific evidences that would provide clues to Ammai’s travel to Southeast Asia – specifically Cambodia and Thailand, it is important to explore different ways to decode the images of Ammai in 11th century Tamil and Khmer Kingdoms.

The very few stone and copper plate inscriptions so far found in Tamil/Sanskrit languages in present day Tamilnadu, that mention the strong ties between the Tamils and Southeast Asian Kingdoms cannot be ignored here. These may not be direct epigraphic evidences to Ammai’s sculptural reference beyond high seas, but might provide a pathway to her explicit travel.

The Pious Lady walked her way to Lord Shiva’s abode with her unparalleled faith in the Lord. The only thing she wanted was to watch her Almighty Dance to Glory. From each one of Ammai’s verses, the tear filled reader can feel the relentless Trust and spiritual Conviction of Ammai on Shiva – the Mystical Dancer.

This Faith in the Mystical Dancer has elevated the Pioneer Tamil Saint of Indian Bhakti Movement way back in the 6th century ACE to more than an Ambassador of the Shaivite Movement spreading the wave of Adalvallan/Dancing Shiva towards Southeast Asia. Nearly four centuries after Ammai’s life, the Temple Builders gave the Eternal Devotee a sculptural identity even beyond high seas, and amazingly the same way she had wanted to remain.

A few important flash points

A few important flash points during the reigns of Rajaraja I and his son Rajendra I in Thamizhagam, during the years 985 ACE – 1050 ACE, which coincides with the reign of Suryavarman I in present day Cambodia (1010 ACE) and north-east Thailand might provide important clues on the strong connections between both states. These flash points with the available inscriptions are strong evidences of the influence the Tamils had on the economy, culture and religion of the Khmer Empire. The impact of the stronghold of the Tamils can be visible through sculptures in their temples and temple architecture.

 

  1. 985 ACE – Rajaraja I ascends the throne as Chola King after Madhurantaka Chola.

2. 1006 ACE – Rajaraja’s Larger Leiden Copper Plate Inscription. The Inscription dated in the 21st regnal year of the King was posthumously added by his son Rajendra I.

It refers to the construction of a Buddhist temple by King of Kadaram (Sri Vijaya) Maravijayothungavarman, son of Chulamanivarman at Nagapattinam, the coastal town of Tamilnadu.  Rajaraja I provides the income of eight thousand nine hundred and forty three kalam and odd of paddy accruing from the payment of land assessment of ninety-seven and odd (veli) of land of that village to the construction of Chulamanivarma vihara. Thats a proof to friendly, co-exisitng communities beyond high seas and religion. (Text of translated version of inscription adapted from article titled – ‘Ancient and Medieval Tamil and Sanskrit Inscriptions Relating to Southeast Asia and China’ by Noboru Karashima and Y. Subbarayalu)

 

 

img_5647Photo of the printed version of Inscription clicked from Tamil version of the book – Nagapattinam to Swarnadwipa – Reflection on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia

For inscription – refer link – page 274,275 –  Ancient and Medieval Tamil and Sanskrit Inscriptions Relating to Southeast Asia and China by Noboru Karashima and Y. Subbarayalu

3. 1010 ACE –

a. Completion of Thanjavur Temple – a mile stone in Chola Temple Architecture. With their economic ties at peak, the Cholas demonstrated their architectural excellence through Thanjavur Periya Kovil.  Before the Cholas, the kingdoms in today’s Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Indonesia were already influenced by religion and temple architecture from Indian kingdoms and specifically showcase impressions of Pallava Architecture in their temples.

Rajaraja projects himself and the Cholas as a friendly yet strong economic power. The already well settled Tamil Merchant Guilds abroad seem to have bloomed suddenly with confidence due to Political Amicability between the Cholas and the host kingdoms of the Guilds.

b. Portrayal of Dancing Shiva in Rajaraja’s Magnum Opus – The Emperor doesn’t forget his grandmother Chembiyan Madevi’s introduction of Karaikkal Ammai at the feet of Adalvallan. He places her watching the Divine Dance to the left of Shiva, somewhat similar to Madevi’s sculptural depiction, in a panel close to the central niche of Dancing Shiva. It is also note worthy to mention that Madevi had experimented the portrayal of Ammai in various ways mostly to the right of Shiva in a separate panel close to the niche placing Adalvallan (Koogur Mampazhamudaiyar – sanskritized name: Ambaravaneswarar temple), with an exotic instrument sirattai kinnari (Thiruppugalur Konapiran – sanskritized name: Vardhamaaneeswarar temple) or at the feet of Shiva among various instrumentalists (exclusive panel of Karunthittaikudi – sanskritized name: Vasishteeswarar temple), etc.

 

Adalvallan in Rajaraja’s Thanjavur Temple

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

(photo courtesy: Dr. Ma.Ra. Kalaikkovan, Founder, Dr. Rajamanickanar Historical Research Centre, Thiruchirapalli)

4. 1010 ACE – Suryavarman I claims Khmer throne after years of turmoil.

5. 1014 ACE – Rajendra I, son of Rajaraja I comes to power after demise of father.

6. 1014/1015 ACE- Nagapattinam Inscription 1 of Rajendra I  -This refers to the grant made by Sri Mulan Agattisvaran, an agent of Srivijaya to erect a gateway to the compound wall of Tirukkaronamudaiya Mahadevar Temple in Nagappattinam. (Text of translated version of inscription adapted from article titled – ‘Ancient and Medieval Tamil and Sanskrit Inscriptions Relating to Southeast Asia and China’ by Noboru Karashima and Y. Subbarayalu)

img_5654Photo of the printed version of Inscription clicked from Tamil version of the book – Nagapattinam to Swarnadwipa – Reflection on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia

For inscription – refer link – page 275,276 –  Ancient and Medieval Tamil and Sanskrit Inscriptions Relating to Southeast Asia and China by Noboru Karashima and Y. Subbarayalu

7. 1015 ACE – Nagapattinam Inscription 2 of Rajendra I –  refers to the grant by an agent of Srivijaya from Menrondripattinam of Rajarajamandalam, who gifts a collection of jewel stones like ruby, emerald etc, weighing 14 and 1/2 kalanju for the silver image of Nagaiyalangarar. (Text of translated version of inscription adapted from article titled – ‘Ancient and Medieval Tamil and Sanskrit Inscriptions Relating to Southeast Asia and China’ by Noboru Karashima and Y. Subbarayalu)

 

img_5648Photo of the printed version of Inscription clicked from Tamil version of the book – Nagapattinam to Swarnadwipa – Reflection on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia

For inscription – refer link – page 276,277 –  Ancient and Medieval Tamil and Sanskrit Inscriptions Relating to Southeast Asia and China by Noboru Karashima and Y. Subbarayalu

8. 1019 ACE – Nagapattinam Inscription 3 of Rajendra I – This refers to the grant by an agent Kuruttan Kesuvan of Srivijaya, for providing food to persons in the Nagapattinam temple and for feeding the deity and Brahmanas. The inscription also specifies the grant for these purposes as 87 and 3/4 kalanju Chinakkanakam (Chinese Gold) and 60 and 3/4 kalanju untikaipon (stamped gold) and the total being 236 and 1/4 kalanju. (Text of translated version of inscription adapted from article titled – ‘Ancient and Medieval Tamil and Sanskrit Inscriptions Relating to Southeast Asia and China’ by Noboru Karashima and Y. Subbarayalu)

 

img_5649Photo of the printed version of Inscription clicked from Tamil version of the book – Nagapattinam to Swarnadwipa – Reflection on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia

Rajaraja’s Larger Leiden Plates of 1006 and Rajendra’s 1014, 1015 and 1019 inscriptions of Nagapattinam show the cordial connect between Cholas and Srivijaya. The available inscriptions co-incidentally talk religion on a mutual tone. While Rajaraja grants a village for a Buddhist Vihara for Srivijaya, the agents of Srivijaya provide grants for Hindu temples in Chola country.

The entangled Religion factor alongside Mercantile is certainly not to be ignored.

The growing power of the Cholas – economically and politically has been recognized by their strong competitors in the Indian Ocean – the Srivijaya. The above mentioned inscriptions which talk of their grants show their desire for cordial relations through their agents in Tamil Land.

Other epigraphical evidences reveal the unambiguous rise of the Cholas as Maritime Champions during the reigns of Rajaraja and his son Rajendra. Rajaraja I conquered the Cheras, Pandyas, Vengi, Gangapadi, Tadigaipadi, Nolambapadi and parts of Andhra Pradesh, Srilanka, Maldives and many more. Alongside successful conquests of Kingdoms, Rajaraja followed friendly diplomacy towards his Southeast Asian neighbors across high seas.

9. 1027 ACE – Thirukkadaiyur Inscription of Rajendra I – Rajendra Chola initially continues father’s policy of amicable relations with the Southeast Asian Kingdoms and also reconfirms Rajaraja’s grant to the Buddhist Vihara in Nagapattinam. There seems to be a sudden deviation in the friendly strategy in 1017, which erupts in 1025 into the largest ever sea battle undertaken by any Indian King as on date, under Rajendra I. His Thirukkadaiyur Inscription lists his conquests and victories across the rolling sea.

 

 

img_5651Photo of the printed version of Inscription clicked from Tamil version of the book – Nagapattinam to Swarnadwipa – Reflection on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia

[Rajendra Chola] having despatched many ships in the midst of the rolling sea and having caught Sangrāma- vijayottunga-varman, the King of Kadaram [Kedah, Malay Peninsula], together with the elephants in his glorious army, (took) the large heap of treasures, which (that king) had rightfully accumulated; (captured) with noise the (arch called) Vidhyādhara-torana at the ‘war-gate’ of his extensive city; Śrī Vijāya [Palembang] with the ‘jewelled wicket-gate’ adorned with great splendour and the ‘gate of large jewels’; Pannai [east cost of Sumatra] with water in the bathing ghats; the ancient Malaiyur [Jambi, Sumatra] with the strong mountain for its rampart; Māyuridingam [Malay Peninsula] surrounded by the deep sea as by a moat; Ilangāśoka [Langkasuka, Malay Peninsula] undaunted in fierce battles; Māpappālam [near Pegu, Burma] having abundant water as defence; Mevilimbangam [near Ligor, south Thailand] having fine walls as defence; Valaippanduru [perhaps Panduranga, central Vietnam] having Vilappanduru(?); Talaittakkolam [at the Isthmus of Kra, southern Thailand) praised by great men (versed in) the sciences; Mādamālingam [Lamuri, north Sumatra]; Ilāmurideśam [Tambralingam, east coast of Malay Peninsula], whose fierce strength rose in war; Mānakkavāram [Nicobar Islands] in whose extensive flower gardens honey was collected; and Kadāram of fierce strength which was protected by the deep sea.

THE CŌḶAS by k. a. nilakanta sastri, (courtesy: http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415485432/15.asp)

The unexpected reversal of cordial approach to Political and Military Dominance by Rajendra has been a topic of divergent views, with analysts attributing different reasons for such a sea raid. Tansen Sen interprets it as a ‘Trade War’ –

“The Chola raid on Srivijaya can be concluded as an ambitious maneuver with a pretext to remove hindrance from the trade route

the Srivijayan diplomatic and military attempts to block maritime links between  Indian and the Song markets may have been both the principal factors for the Chola naval raids”

page 2, Tansen Sen’s View by Hermann Kulke, The Naval Expeditions of the Cholas in the context of Asian History; Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa.

 

If Trade and holding Power of Trade Routes have been reasons behind Rajendra’s Srivijaya attack, the rise of Cholas from a friendly economy to a powerful naval force must have invoked changes in the mindset of the Kingdoms nearby. One of those was the Khmer Kingdom.

“More or less simultaneously with the expansionism of the Cholas under Rajaraja and Rajendra, the kingdom of Angkor for the first time extended its frontiers far beyond its dynastic homelands, and subjugated parts of Laos, central Thailand, and the northern part of the Malay Peninsula. It soon became the dominating power in the Gulf of Siam and Mainland Southeast Asia and was therefore, bound to get into conflict with Dai-Viet and Champa who were competing for the control of the important maritime trade routes on the eastern coast of Mainland Southeast Asia.”

pg.3, Hermann Kulke, The Naval Expeditions of the Cholas in the context of Asian History; Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa.

10. 1020 ACE – Karandai Copper Plate Inscription of Rajendra I – refers to the chariot presented by a Kamboja King to Rajendra, inorder to protect his sovereignty.

Photo of the printed version of Inscription clicked from Tamil version of the book – Nagapattinam to Swarnadwipa – Reflection on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia

This inscription is one direct connect between Tamil and Khmer Empires. It doesn’t show any religious correspondence as mentioned in Nagapattinam Inscriptions with regards to Srivijaya. Yet, this is a remarkable evidence of Trade Wars leading to Military Conquests, thereby emphasizing the Chola Influence on other Southeast Asian Kingdoms.

Though all the previously mentioned inscriptions have been translated, discussed and analyzed by various respectable researchers, they have been repetitively mentioned by this writer to re-emphasize the Power of the Chola Naval Forces which was its zenith in the 11th century ACE, which in turn led to successful maritime trade activities through Tamil Merchant Guilds in the Southeast Asian kingdoms and as far as China.

The success in military raids and maritime trade links across the Indian Ocean, cutting across the Straits of Malacca and reaching the Song Dynasty of China, is another way of giving prominent stature to the Tamil Merchant Guilds in the raided countries and neighboring kingdoms alike.

 

The Takuapa Tamil Inscription

While we talk about the Tamil Merchant Guilds called ‘Manigramam’ present in the Southeast Asian Kingdoms during the Chola reign, it is important to mention the Takuapa Tamil Inscription. The Takuapa Tamil Inscription is the first available epigraphical evidence of Tamil Trader Settlement in Southeast Asia written in Tamil Language. The early ninth century ACE inscription mentions ‘Sri Avani Naranam’ – the title of the Pallava King Nandivarman III, who ruled from Kanchipuram in Thamizhagam from 826 ACE to 850 ACE.

……….(ya) varmakku

……man tan nangur udaiya

……..n totta kulam per sri Avani

naranam manikkiramattar (k)

kum Senamukattarkkum

…..patarkkum adarkkalam

The inscription refers to the tank dug by Nangur Udaiyan and called Avani Naranam and is placed under the protection of the Manikkramam, the residents of the military camp…

pg. 28,29 – Takuapa and its Tamil Inscription, KA. Nilakanta Sastri (link: Journal of the Malayan Branch Royal Asiatic Society)

What lies beneath and above the evidences on Tamil Merchant activities, is the religious string always clinging on to Trader Guilds. Takuapa, on the west coast of Malay Peninsula has left behind Hindu sculptures in Pallava style. The main deity that was believed to be Vishnu has been suggested by Prof. Sastri in his revised article in the Journal of Oriental Research as Shiva in Gangadhara form with Bhagiratha on his right and Parvathi to his left. He also mentions that Dr. Wales had assessed the date of the images to be between 7th and 8th century ACE.

The most important fact to be noted here too is the religious link alongside the trade link. The traders settled in several parts of various kingdoms across Southeast Asia, created their own religious entities to stay connected to their roots. With or without pre-planned motive on spreading the influence of their language, culture and religion in the country of their settlement, there has been undoubted influence of the Tamil Religious Cult that traveled with the trade wave.

 

In historian K.A. Sastri’s words-

We thus see clearly that our inscription attests the presence at Takuapa of a good number of Tamils including soldiers and merchants and having a permanent stake in the country round about and rearing religious and secular institutions conducive to their spiritual and material welfare, Quite possibly the political power of Nandivarman III extended to parts of the west coast of the Malay peninsula at least for some years. pg. 30, Takuapa and its Tamil Inscription, KA. Nilakanta Sastri (see link: Journal of the Malayan Branch Royal Asiatic Society)

 

Preaching Shaivism through stories of Nayanmars

Trying to place Karaikkal Ammai in the religious interest of Trader Guilds, the foremost reason to have brought her into Southeast Asia could be because of the community she originally belonged to. Hailing from Karaikkal, the port town of yesteryear Pallava country which later came under the Cholas, Ammai belonged to the Trader Community.

As mentioned in previous posts, the sculpting of Ammai in Tamil Temples was pioneered by Chembian Madevi in the 10th century ACE. Yet, the devotional verses of Tamil Nayanmars on Shiva have been popular among Tamils throughout previous centuries. The vigour to place Shavisim beyond other rival beliefs as Buddhism, Jainism and even Vaishnavism (different sect within Hinduism) has always yielded success through the spread of the divine verses of the prominent three Nayanmars as well as the stories of 60 other Nayanmars and their love for Lord Shiva, before Chekkizhar could create their stories in verses in Periya Puranam, in the 12th century ACE.

There is no clear evidence to prove the spread of the verses of Karaikkal Ammai, which sees Shiva as the Mystic Dancer. Her verses are not for the ordinary Devotee. Strong verses immersed in the ashes of the Cemetery, seeing herself as the skeletal ghost and calling herself the Demon of Karaikkal are exclusive features of Ammai’s Devotion. Reading her poetry, one might feel that the story of Ammai is better comprehensible than her verses, because of the Mystical Spritualism that she portrays.

An explicit story, aloof from the rest of world and even beyond, seeking removal of worldly beauty and earthy desires, and even more – a Desire to watch the Dance of the Eternal Dancer should’ve been the story of households trying to preach Shaivism to the next generation as well as to protect from other religious beliefs.

The verses of Thirunavukkarasar, Sambandhar and Sundarar – the foremost saints of Tamil Bhakti Movement were and still are rendered in Temples to praise the glory of the Lord. But, the story of Ammai is a life portrayal of Devotion to be narrated by word of mouth.

The Takuapa Tamil Inscription that mentions Avaninaranam is another link to Thevaram verses sung in Temples. It was seen before that Avaninaranam was one of the titles of the Pallava King Nandivarman III. The Thiruvallam Inscription of 852 ACE, as classified by S.R. Balasubramanyam, refers to grants offered to singers of Thiruppathiyam in the temple of Thiruvallam devoted to Lord Shiva.

The inscriptions says – ‘Tirupatiyam paduva ullitta palapani’

pg. 88,89; The Embodiment of Bhakti by Karen Pechilis Prentiss

Thiruppathiyam refers to Thevaram hymns.  Thiruppathigam mentioned here, could be those of the Supreme Trio of Tamil Shaivic Movement. If the hymns of the Shaivite Trio had been popular among temple goers and society as a whole, with singers employed in the temples as early as Pallava rule, the spread of the stories of Nayanmars couldn’t be behind.  The fact to be noted here is the importance given to the Pioneers of Shaiva Bhakti Movement, in keeping Shaivism  intact among the members of the society.

Preaching Shaivism through Nayanmars as Religious Trendsetters  has been a continuous trend among the Rulers and their Spiritual Advisors. This again showcases the importance given to Nayanmars in temples, to emphasize Shaivism among the population. Hence, the stories of the simple saints of Shiva formed an integral part of Religion and Religious Belief since the Pallavas.

This remains proof to yet another fact that the portrayal of these poets in stone comes far later as after centuries of their deeds, but the spread of Shaivism through their lives has been a continuous affair through Temple recitals and word of mouth. Kingdoms were no different to this scenario. Most of the Nayanmars who lived before the Victory of Cholas in the 9th century ACE, in different kingdoms of southern India,  seem to have glided into the religious lives of the Tamils irrespective of the kingdoms they belonged to. Tamil – the language and Shiva – the Lord were the only main connecting factors.

 

Traders as Religous Diplomats

The already well known stories and hymns of the Nayanmars made the Chola Queen Chembiyan Madevi portray the Pioneer Saints in Sculpture. It is to be understood that the Tamils living in Tamil Land or the Tamils migrated to foreign lands for Trade purposes carried their religious identity as part of the roots left behind. Hence, we see Shaivism prominent in the Trader Settlements through their inscriptions and the Religious Sculptures discovered all along Southeast Asian countries.

If Thirunavukkarasar, Thirignanasambandhar and Sundaramoorthy Nayanar form the three Primary Saints of Tamil Bhakti Movement, why was Karaikkal Ammai the first Tamil Saint to travel abroad seaways?

The Traders Settlement in Southeast Asian Kingdoms, lived their lives for centuries with the stern Shaivite identity through belief in Shiva and his Devotees – the Nayanmars. We see the same culture till today. The immigrant communities trying to stick to roots through Religion is the norm of all ages. Even in Takuapa we find idols of Hindu Gods as evidences of Temple and Worship among the Dwellers.The spread of Shaivism received a strong pathway through the spread of devotional stories among the immigrant Tamil Trade Settlers to stay rooted.

With the unexpected uprising of the friendly Cholas as a  Strong Military among the Kingdoms along the Indian Ocean and Malay Peninsula, the Merchant Guilds could’ve found sudden and increasingly positive ties in the places of their overseas settlement.

As quoted by Hermann Kulke,  Meera Abraham’s view on Rajendra’s Raids on Srivijaya from her book ‘Two Medieval Merchant Guilds of South India’ is to be seen in light of the above mentioned reflection.

 

“Our belief is that the raid was undertaken partly at least to establish trading rights for Tamil-speaking merchants in those areas, a trade from which the ruler, the merchant and the Chola bureaucracy could expect sizable profits”

pg. 15, M. Abraham’s view by Hermann Kulke, The Naval Expeditions of the Cholas in the context of Asian History; Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa.

Here, Ms. Abraham emphasizes a direct influence of the famous Manigramam and Ayyavole merchant guilds on the politics of the Cholas. This is yet again proof to the intertwined connect of the Merchant Guilds and the Political Masters.

With Rajendra’s raids, and Khmer King Suryavarman I (who comes to power in 1010 and sends a chariot to Rajendra in 1020) extending friendly hand, with expectations of amicable reciprocity from the Tamil country,  the Tamil Trader Community could’ve found a right time to represent their identity in Khmer country through the sculpture of  Ammai, who belonged to their own community back in Tamizhagam. The reason behind why the Shaivite Trio – Appar, Sambandhar and Sundarar couldn’t find their first place in Southeast Asian Temples and Karaikkal Ammai takes the first entry could also be the same.

Traders have always proved to be Religious Diplomats. Their potential in elevating a kingdoms/country’s Economy has been seen to have placed them among the Elites. These Diplomats along with the Spiritual Advisors of the Khmer Kings could have successfully elevated the devotion of Ammai to a new personification in Khmer Temple Architecture.

Hence, Suryavarman I adopting the sculptural portrayal of Karaikkal Ammai in the temples built and renovated by him, could have been the retrospective effect of the raids of Rajendra I and the new energy pumped into the Tamil Merchant Guilds of the Khmer Empire.

Adalvallan in Rajendra’s Gangaikonda Cholapuram

4-gangaikonda-cholapuram-nataraja-panel

(photo courtesy: Dr. Ma.Ra. Kalaikkovan, Founder, Dr. Rajamanickanar Historical Research Centre, Thiruchirapalli)

One can also notice the fact that Rajaraja’s Karaikkal Ammai is placed almost the same as Chembian Madevi’s style of sculptural portrayal. Rajendra makes a change in his Gangaikonda Cholapuram Ammai. She is not sculpted to the side of the Dancing Lord, but seen sitting among a separate panel of instrumentalists below Him.

Dancing Shiva with Karaikkal Ammai in Prasat Hin Phimai, Thailand

img_2555

img_2551

In portraying Karaikkal Ammai in their Temples, the Khmers seem to have adapted the similar pattern of Rajendra I.  Then, is this yet another clue to the introduction of Ammai by Suryavarman I ?

Ammai in Phimai (Khmer)img_2551-copy

 Ammai in Gangaikonda Cholapuram (Chola)4-gangaikonda-cholapuram-nataraja-panel1

Karaikkal Ammai sculpted in Khmer Temples in north-east Thailand would be seen in the next post.

Bibliography

  1. Tansen Sen, The Military Campaigns of Rajendra Chola and the Chola-Srivijaya-China Triangle; Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa : Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia.
  2. Noboru Karashima and Y. Subbarayalu, Ancient and Medieval Tamil and Sanskrit Inscriptions Relating to Southeast Asia and China; Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa : Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia.
  3. Hermann Kulke, The Naval Expeditions of the Cholas in the context of Asian History; Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa : Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia.
  4. KA. Nilakanta Sastri, Takuapa and its Tamil Inscription.
  5. Karen Pechilis Prentiss, The Embodiment of Bhakti.

Links

  1. https://glorioustamils.com/2016/09/22/ammai-in-banteay-srei-and-the-tamil-maritime-links-in-south-east-asia/
  2. Ancient and Medieval Tamil and Sanskrit Inscriptions Relating to Southeast Asia and China by Noboru Karashima and Y. Subbarayalu
  3. http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415485432/15.asp
  4. Takuapa and its Tamil Inscription – KA. Nilakanta Sastri; Journal of the Malayan Branch Royal Asiatic Society
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Karaikkal Ammaiyar – Revered Mother of Karaikkal

 

இறவாத இன்ப அன்பு வேண்டிப்பின் வேண்டு கின்றார்
பிறவாமை வேண்டும், மீண்டும் பிறப்புண்டேல் உன்னை என்றும்
மறவாமை வேண்டும், இன்னும் வேண்டும்நான் மகிழ்ந்து பாடி
அறவாநீ ஆடும் போதுஉன் அடியின்கீழ் இருக்க என்றார்.
“I pray for the infinite happiness of Your love; I do not want to be born again; if I do, I do not want to forget You forever; if I do, I want to be happily singing in Your praise under Your feet as You are dancing”.

http://tamilnation.co/sathyam/east/periyapuranam.htm

This is what Karaikkal Ammaiyar asks Lord Shiva and is represented beautifully in the words of Sekkizhar’s Periya Puranam – the story of 63 Nayanmars

 

banteay srei temple – adalvallan and karaikkal ammaiyar to his right

IMG_0578

 

As a normal oratorical speech would start, we cannot start by saying ‘Karaikkal Ammaiyar’ needs no introduction. Indeed, Karaikkal Ammaiyar needs introduction in today’s Tamil World. The world knowing her is secondary; the Tamil World of today’s Youngsters and English Educated Middle Aged Parents – most or half of the population not knowing her is certainly a pathetic scenario. But for Indians – Being Well Rooted in one’s own traditions as well as Being a Global Citizen doesn’t seem to materialize. While the choice of being a global citizen has become the PRIDE of present generations, one doesn’t realize the resultant loss of identity due to loss of roots. The primary task of each generation which used to be passing on the roots to the next generation has become secondary. But, making their progeny succeed in any part of the world by having no single identity is a NORM of the millennium. A pity though.

 

battambang museum – adalvallan and karaikkal ammaiyar to his left

IMG_1394

 

Nayanmars – Devotion through one’s own mother tongue

To introduce Karaikkal Ammaiyar, introduction of Nayanmars is quintessential. Nayanmars were Ardent Devotees who sang in praise of Lord Shiva in humble Tamil and connected with the masses. In an attempt to cut off the influences of Buddhism and Jainism, these Primary Devotees of Tamil Bhakti Movement took up Shaivism. Their pure love and selfless affection towards Lord Shiva was a powerful tool against other religions. Their priceless possession was not only Devotion and Selfless Love, but incomparable literary skill that made them reach out to the common man in his own language.

There were 63 Nayanmars, who lived and sang from 6th century until 12th century ACE, without doubt creating a wealth of Bhakti Literature that stands even today to hold the importance of worship of God in Tamil.

Beyond being a tool against other religions, their belief in love and devotion alone to reach Shiva is the keypoint in all the songs that the Nayanmars sang. Belief in one’s God and being able to relate and communicate with that One Almighty in one’s own mother tongue and non-dependence of Sanskrit to communicate with that God could be a few fundamentals of the Tamil Bhakti Movement.

 
Rajaraja Cholan (985-1013)

Great credit goes to the Cholas for bringing to light the compiled version of the songs sung by 63 Nayanmars. King Rajaraja Cholan appointed Nambi Andar Nambi, a priest in Thillai – the original Tamil name of Chidambaram Shiva Temple, to compile the devotional literary works of Nayanmars, sprawling over 5 centuries then.

Nambi compiled the works of the 63 Nayanmars into 11 volumes and added his own work in the 11th volume. The works of Sambanthar, Appar, and Sundarar form(ed) the first seven volumes and they are called Thevaram – or the Garland of the Gods; Manickavasagar’s Thirukkovaiyar and Thiruvasagam form(ed) the 8th volume. These four nayanmars are classified as the Most Reverred Beacons of Tamil Shaivite Bhakti Movement (Samaya Kuravargal), among the 63.

 
Kulothunga Cholan II (1133-1150)

During the reign of King Kulothuga Cholan II, his chief minister Sekkizhar/Chekkizhar travelled across the places of birth and travel of the 63 nayanmars and compiled their life histories. He named his biography of nayanmars in poetic verses – ‘Thiruthondar Puranam’ – the story of the servants of God, which is popularly called ‘Periya Puranam’ – the Big Puranam. Sekkizhar’s  Periya Puranam added as the 12th volume to the previous collection of 11 volumes is called ‘Panniru Thirumurai’ – The Tamil Saiva Literary Canon.

Rajarajan, who gave the Nayanmars their deserving Elite Place in Tamil Saiva Literature and Tamil Saiva Movement is hailed as ‘Thirumurai Kanda Cholan’ –  that can be broadly described in English as ‘the Protector of Saiva Religion and Literature’.

The sacred collection ‘Panniru Thirumurai’ is a unique Literary Excellence which showcases 600 years of devotional movement of surrendering to the Lord, the extra ordinary emphasis being the worship in one’s own mother tongue.

 

The devotional movements contained elements of social as well as religious reform, protesting brahmanical orthodoxy along with the heterodox faiths of Buddhism and Jainism. http://www.southwestern.edu/academics/bwp/pdf/2005bwp-craddock.pdf

Thevaram and other hymns still adorn the Temples of Tamilnadu and homes of Tamil Worshippers around the world.

 

All the saints mentioned in this epic poem are historical persons and not mythical.Therefore, this is a recorded history of the 63 Saiva saints called as Nayanmars (devotees of Lord Siva), who attain salvation by their unflinching devotion to Siva. The Nayanmars that he talks about belonged to different castes, different occupations and lived in different times.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periya_Puranam#cite_note-MedievalIndianLiterature-3

 
Karaikkal Ammaiyar

 

phnom penh museum – karaikkal ammaiyar

IMG_1079

 
Her Literary Contribution to the Tamil World –

She is considered the author of 143 poems organized into four works of poetry that are included in the eleventh book of the Tirumuṟai, the Śaiva canon: Aṟputat Tiruvantāti (Sacred Linked Verses of Wonder), with 101 veṇpā verses; Tiruviraṭṭai Maṇimālai (The Sacred Garland of Double Gems), with 20 stanzas alternating in veṇpā and kaṭṭalaik kalittuṟai; and the two patikams called Tiruvālaṅkāṭṭu Mūtta Tiruppatikaṅkaḷ (First Sacred Verses on Tiruvālaṅkāṭu), which are ten-verse poems with an eleventh “signature” verse each and which are set to music (some texts call the first patikam Tiruvālaṅkāṭṭu Mūtta Tiruppatikaṅkaḷ and the second patikam simply Tiruvālaṅkāṭṭu Tiruppatikaṅkaḷ, or Sacred Verses on Tiruvālaṅkāṭu). http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195399318/obo-9780195399318-0059.xml

Among the 63 Nayanmars, Karaikkal Ammaiyar was a Pioneer Tamil Saint in many ways. She was one and first among the three women Nayanmars.

A few striking features of Ammaiyar include –

  • She was the first Nayanmar among the 63 Nayanmars in the chronological order. She lived in 5th- 6th Century ACE. Hence, she was the first nayanmar to initiate the Tamil Bhakti Movement
  • Her story of devotion epitomises the fact that love of God is beyond gender
  • She had the conviction to forgo her family life, leaving behind her husband to blissfully sing at the feet of Shiva
  • She had the fearless attitude to give away her beautiful looks and to take up ‘Peyuru’ or ‘Demonic Image’, that is why she is portrayed in a skeletal demonic form in all sculptures
  • She was introduced by Shiva to his wife Parvati as ‘Ammai’ or mother – such was the passion of God that made her convert from ‘Punithavathi’ her original name to Karaikkal Ammaiyar or the Mother of Karaikkal, a town in the then Pallava Empire, in today’s Union Territory of Pudhucherry in South India
  • She introduced the pattern of poetry writing called ‘Andhadhi’ –

 

Andhadhi(Tamil: அந்தாதி) is a unique kind of Tamil poetry constructed such that the last or ending word of each verse became the first word of the next verse. In some instances, the last word of a series of verses becomes the beginning of the very first verse, thus making the poem a true garland of verses. Andha(m means “end” and ‘‘Adhi’’ means “beginning”. In Tamil Andhadhi was first sung by Karaikkal Ammeiyar http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhadhi

She is addressed by scholars and researchers in many ways. Apart from Karaikkal Ammaiyar, she is also called  ‘Siva’s Demon Devotee’, ‘Karaikkal Pei’ – meaning ‘Ghost of Karaikkal’ in tamil due to her looks and  ‘Peyar’ – the revered ghost. Giving least importance to beauty and worldly pleasures, she wished and prayed for the demonic form and her wish was granted by Shiva. She can be recognized as an emaciated/skeletal figure at the feet of Shiva in sculptures.

She composed Thiuvirattai Manimalai, Arputha Thiruvanthathi and Thiruvalankaatu Mootha Thiruppathigangal.

To know more on Ammaiyar, google ‘Karaikkal Ammaiyar’ and the web world welcomes you to introductions and many research papers.

 
Ammaiyar in Cambodia

 

name legend recognizing karaikkal ammaiyar in phnom penh museum

cropped-img_5331.jpg

 

When I came across the book in the internet, Karaikkalammaiyar: An iconographical and textual study By Peter J. J. de Bruijn, it threw a new light on Ammaiyar in Cambodia.

The book specifies the places where Ammaiyar was found  in demon form sitting below the beautifully carved ‘Adalvallan – Nataraja or the Dancing Shiva’.

Let’s bring back the verses that kick-started this post –

 

இறவாத இன்ப அன்பு வேண்டிப்பின் வேண்டு கின்றார்
பிறவாமை வேண்டும், மீண்டும் பிறப்புண்டேல் உன்னை என்றும்
மறவாமை வேண்டும், இன்னும் வேண்டும்நான் மகிழ்ந்து பாடி
அறவாநீ ஆடும் போதுஉன் அடியின்கீழ் இருக்க என்றார்.

“I pray for the infinite happiness of Your love; I do not want to be born again; if I do, I do not want to forget You forever; if I do, I want to be happily singing in Your praise under Your feet as You are dancing”.

http://tamilnation.co/sathyam/east/periyapuranam.htm

This is what Ammaiyar sought from Shiva – to sit at his feet while he dances.

This is exactly the form of portrayal in sculptures in Tamilnadu and other South East Asian countries.

The book specifies the places in Tamilnadu and places in other countries where Ammaiyar can be seen.

Three temples in Tamilnadu – 

  1. Sembiyan Mahadevi Village –  Kailasanathasvamin Temple
  2. Thanjavur – Rajarajeswara Temple
  3. Gangai Konda Chozhapuram – Brihadeeswara Temple

Three bronze sculptures in Srilanka –

  1. Polannaruva – Siva Devele
  2. Colombo Museum
  3. Polannaruva – Siva Devele

Three places in Thailand –

  1. Kamphaeng Yai
  2. Narai Yaeng Waeng
  3. Phimai

and Six places in Cambodia –

  1. Isvarapura Temple – Banteay Srei
  2. Vat Ek
  3. Vat Baset
  4. Phnom Chisor
  5. Angkor Wat and
  6. Sculpture at Phnom Penh Museum

This seemed very interesting. While Ammaiyar sculptures in Banteay Srei and Phnom Penh Museum had already been seen, Vat Ek and Vat Baset became the next search spots.

Vat Ek and Vat Baset are located in Battambang Province of Cambodia. Both temples are in natural ruins, added with a new Buddhist Temple in front of Vat Ek. Unfortunately couldn’t find Ammaiyar in Vat Ek.

But surprisingly Battambang Provincial Museum had three sculptures of Ammaiyar. One Lintel and two broken pediments. They have also recognised Karaikkal Ammaiyar and given a description in their museum booklet.

Let us try to bring in more historical facts of the temples where Ammaiyar’s sculptures are available in temples in Cambodia.

 
Vat Baset

broken lintel of adalvallan/dancing shiva – vat baset

IMG_1136closer look shows karaikkal ammaiyar

IMG_1135
In search of details of Vat Baset…

 

Vat Baset was built during the reign of King, Surya Varman I (1002-1050) and located on a hill at Ba Set village, Ba Set temple adapts the architecture of 11th century and was built between 1036 and 1042. http://www.tourismindochina.com/battambang-attractionsite1.htm

 

The book – ‘The Indianized States of South-East Asia’ by George Coedes provides a clearer picture about the King who built Vat Baset and his relations with the Chola Empire of Tamilagam.

The accession of throne by Surya Varman seems to have been a complicated affair. Two inscriptions mention of one Udayadityavarman, cousin of Jayavarman V who comes to throne in 1001.  In 1001 and 1002, there are four inscriptions referring to Suryavarman, who belongs to royal ancestry in the female line. From 1003 to 1006, King Jayaviravarman is mentioned in inscriptions and according to his inscriptions he establishes the throne of Angkor from 1011.

In the following pages of the book, the author also gives more details on the capturing of throne by Suriyavarman after nine years of war, approximately in 1010. Later in his inscriptions, he dates his accession as year 1002, the year of death or disappearance of King Udayadityavarman I.

There is another thought provoking fact that the author mentions –

In 1012, Suryavarman feeling threatened by the Srivijaya King Maravijayottungavarman, seeks aid of Rajendracholan I by presenting him a chariot. Later, Rajendra Cholan I launches a war against the same Srivijaya King.

 

The first half of the eleventh century, during the  long reign of Suryavarman I, saw indeed the empire become more vast, populous and prosperous.

 The king established four lingas to delimit his empire:

The first Linga was consecrated at Vat Baset, 70 km to the south-west of Angkor.

The three other Lingas were established during 1018 CE at:

Preah Vihear, on a promontory of the Dangrek Range, 140 km to the north-east of Angkor

Phnom Chissor, a sacred hill located 270 km to the south-east.

– Isanatirthi, somewhere in the east.

http://ancientcartography.net/hinterlandsaturn15.html

 
Among the five temples where Karaikkal Ammaiyar is sculpted in Cambodia, Phnom Chissor, Vat Ek and Vat Baset are all built by King Suryavarman I.  The same Rajendra Cholan – I, with whom Suryavarman sought friendly relations, built Adalvallan – Nataraja or the Dancing Shiva with Karaikkal Ammaiyar in his Gangai Konda Cholapuram Kovil (temple). Before Rajendra Cholan, his father Rajaraja Cholan immortalized Ammaiyar in sculpture in his Thanjavur Brihadeswara Kovil.

Could this throw any light on the historic tamil connection of Karaikkal Ammaiyar in Cambodia? But, Vat Baset is certainly not the earliest temple with Ammaiyar sculpture. Banteay Srei temple in 10th century is earlier. This would be discussed in forthcoming posts.

Adalvallan/Nataraja or Dancing Shiva and Karaikkal Ammaiyar – the duo sculpted in South-East Asian temples, kindles more interest in the Yesteryear relations among these Kingdoms and Tamil Kings. Let’s try to explore further to decipher more…..

Books, Research Papers and Links on Karaikkal Ammaiyar

1. Interpreting Devotion: The Poetry and Legacy of a Female Bhakti Saint of India by Karen Pechilis- link – https://nirc.nanzan-u.ac.jp/nfile/4275

2. http://www.southwestern.edu/academics/bwp/pdf/2005bwp-craddock.pdf

3. Medieval Indian Literature – by K. Ayyappa Panicker

4. http://www.academia.edu/310962/
 
5.Siva’s Demon Devotee, Karaikkal Ammaiyar by Elaine Craddock

6.Karaikkalammaiyar: An iconographical and textual study by Peter J. J. de Bruijn

7.Classical Civilizations of South-East Asia edited by Vladimir Braginsky

link – https://books.google.com.kh/books

8.The Indianized States of South-East Asia  by George Cœdès

9. http://www.shaivam.org/nakaarai.html